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History :

Maltose was first isolated in 1819 by Saussure from the enzymatic reaction with malt diastase. Maltose was discovered by Augustine-Pierre Dubrunfaut, but the discovery was not widely acknowledged until 1872 by the Irish chemist and brewer Cornelius O’Sullivan. The word “maltose” comes from the English word “malt” combined with the suffix “-ose” which is used in the names of sugars and other carbohydrates.

Structure and naming :

Carbohydrates are usually divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, depending on the number of sugar subunits they contain. Maltose with the molecular formula (C12H22O11) with a molecular weight of 342.3 Daltons, with two sugar units, is considered a disaccharide because it consists of two glucose molecules. Glucose is a hexose: a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms. The two glucose units are in the form of pyranose and the first carbon (C1) of the first glucose is linked to the fourth carbon (C4) of the second glucose by a glycosidic bond, this bond is called an α bond because the glycosidic bond to the anomeric carbon (C-1) on the other side of the ring as a substituent CH 2OH substituent (C 6 of the first glucose). If the glycosidic bond is on the same side of the CH2OH substituent, it is classified as a β bond (1 → 4) and the resulting molecule will be cellobiose. The anomeric carbon (C1) second glucose molecule, which is not involved in the glycosidic bond, can be in α- or β-anomeric form and form alpha maltose or beta maltose.

The isomer of maltose is isomaltose. It is similar to maltose, but instead of the α (1 → 4) linkage, it is in the α (1 → 6) position, the same type of linkage found in branches of glycogen and amylopectin.

Attributes :
  • Maltose is a component of malt, a substance that is obtained in the soaking and germination process of grain. It is also present in very different amounts in partially hydrolyzed starch products such as maltodextrin, glucose syrups, etc.
  • Like glucose, maltose is a reducing sugar because the ring of one of the two glucose units can be opened to form a free aldehyde group. However, the other ring does not have such a characteristic due to the nature of the glycosidic bond.
  • Maltose can be broken down into glucose by the enzyme maltase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond.
  • Maltose in aqueous solution shows mutarotation, because the α- and β-isomers formed by the different conformations of the anomeric carbon have different specific rotations, and in aqueous solutions, the two forms form a dynamic equilibrium.


  • It has a sweet taste, but depending on its concentration, it is only as sweet as 30 to 60% of sugar (sucrose). A 10% solution of maltose is 35% as sweet as sucrose.
  • FDA considers maltose as a GRAS additive and therefore maltose can be used without any limitation except GMP’s.
Nutritional properties :

Maltose has 4 calories of energy per gram. Excessive consumption of sugars generally leads to several health problems such as obesity, high blood pressure and high blood glucose concentration. One of the disadvantages of maltose is its high glycemic index (GI = 105), which is one of the highest among common sugars.

Maltose syrup :

Maltose syrup refers to normal maltose syrup and high maltose syrup (HMCS) which is produced by enzymatic method. Maltose syrup and high maltose syrup is a food additive that is prepared by the acid-enzymatic conversion of starch, which is used as a sweetener and preservative in the food and beverage industry. It contains maltose, maltotriose and dextrin with a very small amount of dextrose, but the dominant part is maltose. Maltose is less sweet than high fructose corn syrup and contains little or no fructose. However, it is sweet enough to be useful as a sweetener in commercial food production. Although to be labeled “high” syrup must contain at least 50% maltose. Typically, it contains 40-50% maltose, although in some it reaches 70%. Using β-amylase or fungal alpha-amylase, it is possible to produce glucose syrups containing more than 50% maltose or even more than 70% maltose (extra high maltose syrup). These enzymes remove two glucose units, that is, one maltose molecule at a time, from the end of the starch molecule. This product has a long shelf life and improves the taste and texture of the product due to its properties such as sweet, delicate taste and stable nature at high temperature and acidic conditions.

Maltose can be found as a crystalline solid or syrup. Malt syrup is commercially available in 3 models based on dextrose equivalent (DE):

  • High maltose syrup (DE 35-50, 45-60% maltose)
  • Syrup with very high maltose (DE 45-60, 70-85% maltose)
  • Syrup with high conversion (DE 60-70, 30-47% maltose)
Commercial Production :

Maltose syrup is produced commercially by the following process.

  • Production of starch milk: starch materials such as rice or corn powder are mixed with water in a tank and then enzyme is added to them.
  • Liquefaction: the mixture liquefies at high temperatures.
  • Deproteinization: the starch milk is filtered to remove the remaining protein.
  • Saccharification: liquefied material is added to the saccharification tank for reaction with β-amylase enzyme.
  • Decolorization: Maltose syrup is decolorized with activated carbon.
  • Filtration: activated carbon is removed through a filter press.
  • Ion exchange: removal of cations and anions.
  • Concentration and evaporation: the syrup is evaporated, cooled and stored in a vacuum.

 Major producers of maltose in the world market are Cargill, Incorporated, Meelunie B.V., Nectafresh Agro Foods, and Austrade Inc.

Applications : Multipurpose properties of maltose and high maltose syrups :

Maltose syrup is added to several food products due to improved flavor, taste, structure and texture. At the same time, it provides resistance to color formation, moisture absorption and crystallization in final products such as hard candies. High maltose corn syrup is used as a substitute for normal glucose syrup in hard candy production at a given moisture level and temperature, the maltose solution has a lower viscosity than the glucose solution, but it still turns into a hard product. Maltose is also less humectant than glucose, so candy made with high-maltose syrup does not stick as easily as candy made with a standard glucose syrup. Maltose can be used as a substitute for sucrose in the formulation of baked products.

One of the health benefits of maltose is that adding it to various foods increases their shelf life. By inhibiting the fermentation and growth of bacteria, it preserves food. And therefore, it is widely used as a food preservative to maintain food quality and extend the shelf life of products. It provides exceptional stability and transparency to the final products. Maltose is commonly added to foods such as candies, pastries, jams, and jellies. Jellies, jams and syrups are often affected by microbial growths. However, adding maltose to these products can help control microbial growth. Adding maltose to such products can increase their volume, but at the same time reduce their sweetness. Maltose not only preserves the taste of foods, but also prevents them from losing their original color. The findings of studies in 2002 proved that the use of maltose is able to increase the production of saliva. In this way, maltose is an excellent remedy for dry mouth. Maltose lozenge in anhydrous crystalline form is used during this

treatment process. Maltose is added as an additive to spice mixes, mainly because of its antimicrobial properties. Because maltose has a low freezing point, high maltose corn syrup is useful in frozen desserts. It is also used in brewing, because it has a balanced fermentability, can be added at high concentrations to the wort kettle, increasing throughput, and reduces haze caused by varying malt quality. Cargill sells high maltose syrups with the main application of substituting malt in the manufacture of beer. In addition to being used in breweries, maltose syrup can be used in baking, liquid foods, chocolates, sweets, sauces, ice creams, etc. The thriving food and beverage industry owing to the growing consumer demands is significantly contributing to the industry growth. Increasing consumption of baked goods and confectionery in developed regions such as North America and Europe supports the growth of this industry.

Function of maltose in baked flour (bakery) products :

  Maltose has several functions in the baking process:

  • Sweetness: provides a sweet taste (although to a lesser extent than fructose, sucrose and glucose).
  • Tenderizing: Maltose interferes with gluten network formation, protein coagulation and starch gelatinization, thus delaying structure formation.
  • Moisture: It is the result of the hygroscopic nature of its structure.
  • Shelf-life improvement: It can increase the shelf life of baked products by preventing moisture loss and staling.
  • Browning: It helps in browning of baked goods via Maillard reaction as well as caramelization reactions. Maltose has the slowest browning rate of all common sugars.
  • Leavening: only its crystalline form contributes to leavening.
  • Nutrient for yeast fermentation: It helps with slow fermentation, aiding adequate gassing in the final proofing stages.
  • Flavoring: Provides a distinct flavor (especially the syrup form of maltose).
Advantages of using maltose in baked products :
  • Improves yeast fermentation, especially in proof stages
  • Adds sheen to bagels when incorporated into the boiling water
  • Gives a distinct flavor to baked bakery products.
  • It produces a lower degree of browning than other common reducing sugars.
  • The use of maltose in nougat creates a suitable texture and improves chewiness.
  • Maltose creates appropriate viscosity and texture in biscuits and cookies.
  • It feeds yeast and assists with baking and rising of bread.
Considerations when using maltose :
  • Compared to sucrose, it has a milder sweetening effect, and therefore the dosage of maltose should be increased compared to sucrose.

  • To replace granulated sugar with maltose syrup, divide the mass of sucrose by 0.80 and reduce the amount of liquid by the difference between the two.
Difference between maltose syrup and glucose syrup :

Compared to glucose syrup, the sugar components of maltose syrup refer to the percentage of sugar such as glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotatrose, etc., which is also called “constituent structure”. Different types of food with different specifications require different quality of syrup. Mastering the functional effects of syrup sugar components on foods and meeting technological needs in food production is mainly due to their characteristics.

The constituents of sugar syrup are the products of starch hydrolysis and depend on the progress of hydrolysis. During liquefaction, starch is hydrolyzed to dextrin, and during saccharification, oligosaccharides (G7, G6, G5, G4, G3), maltose (G2) derived from dextrin (G8 and above) are hydrolyzed to glucose (G1). The molecular weight becomes smaller and smaller, the complex molecular structure changes to a simpler structure, and the properties of the sugar components change regularly.

Syrup characteristics influenced by hydrolysis :
Sweetness: increases with the degree of hydrolysis.
Viscosity: decreases with the degree of hydrolysis.
Thermal stability: increases with the degree of hydrolysis.
Resistance to crystalinity: decreases with the degree of hydrolysis.
Solubility: increases with the degree of hydrolysis.
Osmotic pressure: increases with the degree of hydrolysis.  
Moisture activity: decreases with the degree of hydrolysis.
Browning reaction: increases with the degree of hydrolysis.
The ability to create aroma and flavor) perfuming ability ) : decreases with the degree of hydrolysis.
Fermentation capacity: increases with the degree of hydrolysis. 
  1. Different production process: Glucose syrup is produced by using hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid as a catalyst; maltose syrup and oligosaccharide syrup are produced by using an enzyme preparation as a biocatalyst. Whether it is syrup using acid or enzymatic process, the production process uses acid or enzyme preparations in different varieties, dosages, production conditions and reaction time, and the products produced are different. In other words, the production process of various syrups is different.
  1. Maltose syrup compared to glucose syrup has different sugar compounds and the resulting syrup has different physical and chemical properties. The sugar component of the syrup not only directly determines the amount of DE (i.e., the amount of reducing sugar), but more importantly, it determines the sweetness, viscosity, solubility, sugar temperature, browning
  2. reaction, aroma retention, anti-crystallization and absorption temperature of the syrup. A wide range of physicochemical properties such as heat preservation and fermentability). The biggest difference between glucose syrup, maltose syrup and oligosaccharides is not in their respective production processes. In fact, with the development of new types of enzyme production methods and the improvement of applied technology, it is now possible to produce many syrups with the enzyme process and achieve various quality indicators. The biggest and most fundamental difference between maltose syrup and glucose syrup is that they have different syrup sugar compositions. The sugar component of glucose syrup is generally rich in glucose, and components such as glucose (G1), maltose (G2), maltotriose (G3) and maltotetraose (G4) are reduced in a certain proportion. The sugar component of maltose syrup is mainly maltose with the least amount of glucose, and the total content of G3+G4+G5 is more. The sugar components of these syrups form the physicochemical properties of syrups and make them widely available in the production of food such as confectionery, biscuits and sweets. Another example, the DE value of syrup is 42, the composition of acidic syrup: G1: 19.3%, G2: 14.3%, G3: 11.8%, G4 and above in total 54.6%. Composition of enzyme syrup: G1: 0.8%, G2: 48.2%, G3: 17.6%, and and G4 and above totaled 33.4%. The use of these two syrups is different. The first one can only produce normal hard candy, but its shelf life is not long. The latter can be used to produce high-quality confectionery, which can also be used to produce high-quality crispy biscuits. The structure of the components of the syrup determines the properties and consumption value of the syrup, and the comprehensive use of the properties of the syrup creates excellent quality and brand characteristics of different foods. In the hygroscopicity (water vapor absorption) of sugar, usually G3>G4>G5=G7>G1>G2, maltotriose has the highest moisture absorption and maltose has the lowest. In moisturizing   oligosaccharides (water retention) (G3-G7), moisture retention is relatively high and G2>G1. Glucose is very absorbent of steam and moisture and has a poor water holding capacity. In the confectionery industry, we often find that candy with high glucose content will be sticky, so-called “confectionery hairpin”.
Increasing consumer health awareness and more demand for high maltose syrups :

In recent years, HMCS has seen an increase in use as a food additive due to the negative reputation of HFCS, as well as the absence of fructose, which is the source of the concern about the health effects of high fructose corn syrup. In addition, maltose syrups Corn-based syrups are gluten-free, thus meeting the demand for gluten-free products. But some syrups made from wheat or barley may contain small amounts of gluten, and it is not known whether this can have significant effects in celiac disease. Therefore, in cases where there is a sensitivity to the absence of gluten, especially in the case of specific food products for celiac patients, it is preferable to use corn maltose syrup. It is recommended that people who take care of their health consumes sugars in moderation. What is notable about maltose is that it contains glucose, which gives this sugar a high glycemic index (GI).

The importance of sweeteners in life :

Carbohydrate-based foods are converted into sugar molecules in the human body. Therefore, excessive consumption of these products exposes people to the risk of diseases such as heart diseases, diabetes, etc. Added sugars in processed products such as soft drinks, packaged fruit juices, cereals, biscuits, cookies, cakes, candies, bread, processed meats, etc. lead to adverse health outcomes including obesity and diabetes. High calorie intake from added sugar is associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. All these health consequences and increasing consumer awareness direct consumers’ interest towards choosing a healthy lifestyle with lower sugar and low-calorie consumption and more attention for nutritious and natural product options. This growing demand for natural and healthier ingredients in the food industry has led to an increase in demand for high maltose syrups, especially those produced from corn or other natural sources. Also, increasing desire and demand for natural and gluten-free food products among consumers with increasing health awareness will help the growth of this sector. In recent years, high maltose corn syrups have seen an increase in demand as a food additive due to the negative reputation of high fructose corn syrups that have adverse health effects. Maltose is safer than fructose and galactose. Additionally, the cohesive properties of maltose may increase the product’s demand in the pharmaceutical industry as an alternative to chemically produced sugar. Other factors such as growing demand for ready-to-drink beverages, confectionery and baked goods, escalating disposable incomes and rising living standards, increased R&D activities, and new product launches are expected to further boost the industry growth over the forecast period. These are the new emerging sectors where these High Maltose Syrup manufacturers and Suppliers will have the expected growth.

Prepared and written by: Mandana Alipour
Director of Research and Development of Golshad Grain Refinery
The use of the contents of this article is permitted by mentioning the source.

انواع طبقه بندی مالتوز

بر اساس منبع نشاسته

⦁ منابع طبیعی
⦁ ذرت
⦁ سیب زمینی شیرین
⦁ جو مومی
⦁ نشاسته برنج
⦁ منابع شیمیایی و آنزیمی
⦁ β-amylase
⦁ fungal α-amylase
بر اساس استفاده نهایی ⦁ محصولات آردی و نانوایی
⦁ صنعت تخیمر و آبجو سازی
⦁ صنعت نوشیدنی‌های بدون الکل و نوشابه
⦁ دسرهای منجمد
بر اساس غلظت ⦁ شربت با غلظت بالای مالتوز
⦁ شربت با غلظت بسیار بالای مالتوز


⦁ Belitz, H.-D .; Grosch, Werner; Schieberle, Peter (2009-01-15). ⦁ Food Chemistry (in English). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 863. ⦁ ISBN ⦁ 9783540699330.
⦁ Spillane, WJ (2006-07-17). ⦁ Optimizing Sweet Taste in Foods (in English). Woodhead Publishing. p. 271. ⦁ ISBN ⦁ 9781845691646.
⦁ “Substances Added To Food (Formerly EAFUS)”. Cfsanappsexternal.Fda.Gov, 2020, ⦁ https://www.cfsanappsexternal.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/index.cfm?set=FoodSubstances⦁ &⦁ id=MALTOSE. Accessed 9 Oct 2020.
⦁ Figoni, P. How Baking Works: Exploring The Fundamentals Of Baking Science. 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
⦁ Qi, Xin, and Richard F. Tester. “Lactose, Maltose, and Sucrose in Health and Disease.” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64.8 (2020): 1901082.
⦁ “Maltose Syrup Manufacturing Process Solution-Maltose Syrup Processing Technology Business Plan”. Syrupmachinery.Com, 2020, https://www.syrupmachinery.com/solutions/#:~:text=Maltose%20syrup%20process%20machine%20technololurry%20unit%20during%20the,transported%20to%20next%20work%20section. Accessed 9 Oct 2020.
⦁ “Substances Added To Food (Formerly EAFUS)”. Cfsanappsexternal.Fda.Gov, 2020, https://www.cfsanappsexternal.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/index.cfm?set=FoodSubstances&id=MALTOSE. Accessed 9 Oct 2020.
⦁ “Maltose – Substance Information – ECHA”. Echa.Europa.Eu, 2020, ⦁ https://echa.europa.eu/nl/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.000.651. Accessed 9 Oct 2020.
⦁ Hull, P. (2010). Glucose syrups: Technology and Application. Wiley Blackwell Publication.
⦁ Tomasik, P., Horton D.(2012).Enzymatic Conversions of starch. Adv. Carbohydrte. Chem. Biochem., 68,59-436.

Latest Articles
Characteristics of used maltodextrin in food and pharmaceutical industries

Study time: 7 minutes Publication date: 06/07/1401

Characteristics of maltodextrin :

Native starch has a limited industrial application due to its low functional properties, and to increase their application, physical, chemical or enzymatic changes must be made in the starch molecule and increase the range of products with special characteristics, which can be used wide range of applications in various fields of food and pharmaceutical industry (Rocha et al., 2005). An easy and fast way to obtain carbohydrates with specific functional properties is through starch hydrolysis.

Dextrose equivalent (DE) is degree of hydrolysis of the starch molecule, defined as direct reducing sugar (ARD) content, expressed as a percentage of glucose on a dry matter basis. Depending on the degree of hydrolysis of the starch molecule, a wide range of products is obtained, which are classified into maltodextrins and syrups according to the (DE) content; Maltodextrins have DE < 20, while syrups have DE ≥ 20 (McPherson and Seib, 1997).

Maltodextrin [(C6 H10O5) nH2O] is recognized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mixture of nutritious, non-sweet carbohydrates with varying degrees of polymerization, consisting of D-glucose units linked by α (1,4) and α (1, 6) glycosidic linkages, defined and have DE < 20. Maltodextrins are available as white powders or concentrated solutions and are generally classified as safe food additives (GRAS) (Marchal et al., 1999; Storz and Steffens, 2004; Storz and Steffens, 2004; Dokic-Baucal et al., 2004). ; Gibiński 2008; Muntean et al. 2010).

The average molecular weight and degree of hydrolysis of maltodextrins changes with dextrose equivalent (DE). In other words, the DE value of maltodextrin generally varies between 0 and 20. (Archilla, 1999) As a result, when the DE value of maltodextrin increases, the molecular weight decreases. Maltodextrins with different DE values ​​show different physicochemical properties. More moisture absorption is seen in maltodextrin with higher DE and lower molecular weight (Archilla, 1999). In addition, the results of other studies show that maltodextrins with higher DE content have higher solubility and sweetness (Chug et al., 2013). Also, with an increase in the amount of DE, moisture absorption, solubility, osmolality (concentration of dissolved solids in a solution) and their effectiveness in reducing the freezing point increase, while viscosity, adhesion and preventing the formation of coarse crystals increase with a decrease in the amount of DE (Dokic- Baucal et al., 2004; Y.-J. Wang & Wang, 2000) even maltodextrins with the same DE value may show very different physicochemical properties due to differences in maltodextrin production(hydrolysis), starch source, and amylose/amylopectin ratio (Dokic-Baucal et. al., 2004).

Figure1- hydrolysis of starch

It is assumed that the functional characteristics of maltodextrins and the degree of DE are related, and it is practically used as a guide to determine their applications. For example, maltodextrins with DE10 are commonly used for flavor carriers, flavoring encapsulation, instant sauces, and diet and light products. Maltodextrins with DE 15 are used for isotonic drinks, dry soups powder, and maltodextrins with DE 20 are used for chocolate powder, dairy desserts, beverage powder, and industrial bakery premixes.

The main commercial sources of starch for the industrial production of maltodextrin are: corn, potato and rice, but they can also be prepared from a variety of starch materials such as tapioca, wheat, sorghum, etc., depending on the availability and price of the raw materials produced in every country (Jimenez et al., 2007; Antonio et al., 2009; Jing et al., 2011)

Compared to raw starch, maltodextrin is more soluble in water and is cheaper than other main edible hydrocolloids, and its solutions are colorless, have a mild taste and soft texture in the mouth (Dokic-Baucal et al. 2004).

Production of Maltodextrin :

Maltodextrins are obtained industrially by controlled hydrolysis of starch, using acids, enzymes or a combination of both (Lumdub wong and Seib, 2001). Today, the acid hydrolysis method is less used in the industry. Acidic methods are mostly used to prepare glucose syrup. It is difficult to produce syrup or powder less than 30% DE through the acid hydrolysis process due to the formation of non-degradable and stable starch in the crystalline state. In the continuous processes of producing hydrolyzed starch products, enzymatic hydrolysis methods or a mixture of acid and enzyme have replaced acid hydrolysis. The use of enzyme in the hydrolysis process is more widespread due to several advantages compared to the use of acid solution. Enzyme method has outstanding advantages compared to acid process. Enzyme hydrolysis equipment is easier than production using acid, which requires acid-resistant equipment. No need to remove salts formed during acid neutralization, enzyme activity in a wider pH range and at lower temperatures than


acid hydrolysis (with obvious energy savings), higher efficiency, easier process control, and also during the hydrolysis process of inferior materials Less produced (Haki and Rakshit 2003).

Carbohydrate profile of maltodextrins obtained from hydrolysis, i.e., its average degree of polymerization (GPP), linearity and degree of branching of their constituent carbohydrates, influenced by source and concentration of starting starch, conditions (temperature and time) as well as type and concentration of enzyme The method used in this process is hydrolysis. This means that there may be maltodextrins with the same DE, but different molecular composition, linearity and branching of carbohydrate incorporation, providing different physicochemical properties and performance for each of them. (Chronakis, 1998; Marchal et al., 1999). Based on differences in the chemical composition and structure of the starting starch, the enzymatic hydrolysis time required to obtain the desired maltodextrin with DE will be different for each type of starting starch. The dextrose equivalent (glucose equivalent) of maltodextrin is related to the ratio of amylose and amylopectin content in the starch used for its production. A higher amylopectin content is associated with a higher dextrose equivalent of maltodextrin. The ratio between linear amylose chain molecules and branched amylopectin chain varies according to the nature of starch. Most starches contain between 15 and 35% amylose. The enzymatic starch hydrolysis process is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2- Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch and its products

Applications of Maltodextrin :

Maltodextrin is used for multiple purposes in food products: providing nutritional value, improving texture, binding to flavor and fat components, protecting against oxygen, providing surface shinning, aiding dispersibility and solubility, increasing soluble solids, inhibiting crystallization, controlling Freezing point, filling, bulking, creating consistency and texture, controlling sweetness and moisture, preventing crystallization and non-enzymatic browning, regulating osmolality, excellent fat substitutes, film forming without coating effect on flavors (Chronakis, 1998; Herrera et al., 2000; Wang and Wang, 2000) Maltodextrin can also be used as an anti-caking agent and suitable filler in the production of spray-dried foods (Chronakis 1998; Setser and Racette 1992; Alexander 1992).

Since maltodextrins are very hydrophilic, they can form gels. Therefore, they are more preferable for use in the food industry as texture modifiers, thickeners and fat replacer.

When sufficient water is present on the surface of the material, maltodextrin exhibits fat-like properties and forms a gel-like matrix that results in the product’s lubricity and flow properties. This gel-like matrix results from interactions between amylose segments characterized as helical regions with linear and branched chains of amylopectin molecules (Chronakis, 1998). Because maltodextrins are very small in diameter (3-5 µm), they resemble fat crystals, leading to maltodextrin-like fat behavior, and a favorable mouth feel in foods. This feeling probably originates from the three-dimensional network of submicrons that exist in the structure of water layers. Therefore, maltodextrin can be used in emulsions as a texture modifier, bulking agent, and especially in food emulsions to some extent as a fat replacer. For this reason, it is preferred in low-fat food systems, especially for the preparation of spreads, margarine, salad dressings, baked goods, fillings, sauces, and processed meats (Chronakis, 1998).

In particular, maltodextrins are not surfactants and thus their main stabilizing action in oil-in-water emulsions is believed to be through viscosity modification or gelation of the aqueous continuous phase surrounding the oil droplets (Dickinson, 2003). Therefore, emulsions containing maltodextrin as a stabilizer need an additional emulsifying agent to produce a stable emulsion (Hogan, S.A., et al., 2001). In addition, molecular characteristics of maltodextrin, such as concentration and chain length, affect the overall rheology and stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

Maltodextrin is sometimes taken as a supplement by bodybuilders and other athletes in powder or gel packs. Maltodextrins considered to be a good source of energy for infants and athletes because the body digests Maltodextrins as a simple carbohydrate, so they are easily absorbed in the small intestine and are quickly available for use by the body. Due to this characteristic of maltodextrin, it is used in sports drinks and special sachets to get quick energy for endurance athletes and to increase the calorie content of baby food. They can also help balance intestinal osmolality in children which may be altered by intestinal disorders in infants (Gregorio et al., 2010). And athletes benefit from a variety of dextrose levels thanks to a variety of Maltodextrins. In addition, Moreover, maltodextrins are suitable for infant nutrition as they are easy to use. Their solubility ensures a lump-free formula for bottle-feeding and gives milk a perfect consistency.

Maltodextrin-based products, especially soy products, soy milk powder for babies, are usually used for children with lactose intolerance or allergy (Consenso Brasileiro, 2007; Raju AS, et al., 2012). These formulas are used as a substitute for cow’s milk. Regulations governing infant nutrition include maltodextrins in the list of authorized carbohydrates for use in food intended for infants (EU Regulation No. 609/2013 and Delegated Regulation (EU) No. 2016/127).

Also, according to the rules of the Celiac Disease Foundation, maltodextrin is considered gluten-free, although wheat-derived maltodextrin can contain small amounts of gluten, but corn-derived maltodextrin is gluten-free.

With the advancement of science and technology, knowledge about the functional possibilities of maltodextrin in food and beverage products has improved significantly over the 20 past years. Due to specific technical/functional properties and easy application, maltodextrin can replace sucrose (O’Brien-Nabors, 2011) or fat (Alexander, 1995; Hadnađev et al., 2011) and in ice cream and dried food formulations, Sweets, cereals, snacks and instant drinks are used. (Takeiti et al., 2010)

Nutrition and health experts recommend that the daily consumption of fat should not exceed 30% of the total calories in the diet, because failure to comply with this issue leads to endangering people’s health and the spread of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the society, for this reason in recent years the demand for dietary and low-fat food products as well as with reduced sugar has caused researchers to pay attention to low-calorie products (reduced or replaced with fat or sugar). Maltodextrin has been one of the most popular carbohydrate-based fat substitutes for the past 30 years. If maltodextrin is used in its pure form, it will produce 4 KCal⁄g of energy, if it is usually mixed with water at a ratio of one to four, as a result, compared to 9 KCal⁄g of fat, it will produce about 1 KCal⁄g less energy. Therefore, in addition to creating a greasy and favorable mouth feel, it will reduce the energy of the product. The use of Maltodextrin in food production can reduce calories by more than 70% (Marchal, L. M, et al., 1999. Replacing Fat with maltodextrin significantly reduces the energy content of the food (16 kJ vs. 38 kJ). Maltodextrin is used in “diet” peanut butter to reduce the fat content, but maintain its texture.

Research shows that one of the advantages of Maltodextrin is to prevent the release of volatile compounds, which makes it a suitable alternative to fat for use in low-calorie meat products. Also, Maltodextrin is widely used in dairy products such as ultra-filtration cheeses, types of yogurts, confectionary cream, ice cream, etc. as a fat substitute and texture improver.

The low glass transition temperature of the main compounds of low molecular weight sugars and organic acids, their hygroscopicity, low melting point and solubility in water make drying the extract and fruit juice difficult and lead to the production of sticky deposits on the wall of spray drier (Ferrari et al., 2012). The use of auxiliary materials with high molecular weight (carrier) can increase the glass transition temperature and reduce the amount of adhesion to the wall. Soy protein isolate, sodium-caseinate and vegetable proteins, etc. have been used as carriers in the food industry (Truong V, 2005), but in general, Maltodextrin with high solubility, low viscosity, low price, neutral taste and aroma., is a suitable wall material for protecting sensitive compounds to oxidation, by facilitating the spray drying process, and is the most used among other carriers. The lower the dextrose equivalent (DE), the higher the glass transition temperature and therefore the lower the adhesion of the final powder. In addition, a number of researchers have mentioned the increase in the density of the powder produced by the spraying method with the help of high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (DE=18-20). The increase in density reduces the cost of transportation and increases the flowability when preparing a reconstituted drink (Shishir MRI and Chen W, 2017).

Table No. 1) commercial fat substitutes

Some of the other applications of maltodextrin are in fillings and coatings, dairy products (including frozen desserts), meat products, bakery (sweets, snacks and cakes), confectionery, microencapsulation of color and flavor, etc. Maltodextrin can replace part of the oil as a coating in low-calorie salad oils.

Maltodextrin can be added in powder form to liquid ingredients in dough production. Maltodextrin mixes easily with natural oils and fats to form stable emulsions under refrigerated conditions. For this purpose, maltodextrin with low DE is more suitable. In frozen desserts, maltodextrin combined with cellulose gums prevents the formation of large crystals during freezing and can control crystallization and lower the melting point. Maltodextrin can be a useful barrier to reduce the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millard) and be used in micro-

encapsulation of food components such as fats, oils, vitamins, minerals and color compounds. This application of maltodextrin is due to the characteristic of water absorption and gel formation. Microencapsulation is a technology in which fine particles and microencapsulated droplets (core) are surrounded and covered by a film made of coating material (wall), which protects the core, and in this way, microcapsule particles are created. The contents are left under favorable conditions so that useful properties can be obtained from it. The composition of the coating is a determining factor of the properties of the produced capsule. The compounds used in the micro coating process are in a range of natural or synthetic polymers. Coating materials should be selected in such a way that they produce an emulsion or a suitable dispersed solution with the active ingredients and should not react or decompose with the active ingredients during the process or storage. In addition, they should match the solubility properties of the capsule and the release properties of the active ingredients. Carbohydrates such as starch, maltodextrin, etc. are the best choice for micro coating applications due to their favorable physicochemical properties such as solubility and melting, different sizes and low price.

If maltodextrin is mixed with oils, due to the low viscosity of its solution, it does not increase the emulsification of the oil like other substances. Molecules with high DE protect the oil against oxidation. It is speculated that the capsule composed of maltodextrin, lecithin of egg yolk, gelatin and caseinate shows optimum protection against oxidation. The effect of maltodextrin is very important in protecting the taste against oxidation.

In the pharmaceutical industry, similar to the food industry, maltodextrin is used as a filler. They are usually present in capsules because they neither add nor decrease the content of the drug, while they stabilize it. Maltodextrin is used as a diluent in tablets and coating materials in microencapsulation of various sensitive substances such as vitamins and has other uses in the pharmaceutical industry.

Maltodextrin is used in cosmetics and skin and hair care products as an emulsifier, moisturizer and hydrating agent. It is used in shampoos and conditioners and in toothpaste as a texture improver. The use of maltodextrin in shampoos goes beyond being only a stabilizer. It can enhance the antiaging benefits of alpha hydroxy acids, or AHAs, commonly used in antiaging products. Maltodextrin also plays a role in improving the texture of products. Since maltodextrin is made of simple sugar units that are soluble in water and has the ability to create a gel-like texture in formulations, the presence of maltodextrin in shampoo makes it appear a lighter product and spread evenly on the hair. Also, it acts as a binding agent, helping to ensure that the formulation remains uniform throughout use and storage and even help the texture.

Recent research has shown that maltodextrin may have anti-aging properties. In 2002, a patent filed by a company called Unilever presented research on the use of maltodextrin in combination with hydroxyl acids. Hydroxyl acids such as alpha hydroxyl acids and beta hydroxyl acids are commonly used in skin and hair care products due to their ability to improve the appearance of skin and hair which damaged by light or natural aging processes. It helps reduce visible

pigmentation caused by hormones, genetics, sun and diet. An important issue with hydroxyl acids is that they can cause irritation such as redness and burning. Researchers found that although maltodextrin itself is not an ant aging compound, it can enhance the anti-aging activity of alpha hydroxy acids and reduce hair and skin irritation.

As a binder, maltodextrin also plays a role in binding other materials together and preventing them from separating. For example, binders are often used in compressed powders to hold them in the container.

It is used in the paper industry as an adhesive to improve the appearance and in the cement industry as an emulsifier.

Conclusion :

Considering the many properties and characteristics of maltodextrin and the approaches of industry and technology in the field of food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics… many applications for maltodextrin can be imagined. Especially in the food industry, due to the change and improve of people’s culture regarding the use of substances with reduced sugar and fat, as well as the desire of food producers, according to the market demand and the development of global health, to reduce sugar and fat in food products to reduce non-communicable diseases., it is possible to predict a wide perspective for the use of maltodextrin in the industry.

Prepared and written by: Mandana Alipour
Director of Research and Development of Golshad Grain Refinery
The use of the contents of this article is permitted by mentioning the source.